Every educated person should know what the human body is made of. At least in general terms. After all, all interesting facts about humans have their appeal, because it is information about us.
We have already told interesting facts about the structure of the human body, but now we will talk more about the biochemical composition of our body.
It should be understood that the human body is extremely complex. Even though the skin, muscles, skeletal bones and hair are completely different from each other – they are all made up of cells.
What is a cell?
Let’s first understand the very meaning of the term.
A cell is an elementary particle in a living organism. But don’t let this definition mislead you: the structure of a cell is far from simple.
The protective shell of a cell is called a membrane. The cytoplasm contains organelles that perform various vital functions:
- Mitochondria provide the cell with energy.
- Protein synthesis takes place in ribosomes,
- Endoplasmic network transports substances.
The center or “brain” of the cell, from which all functional control occurs, is the nucleus.
Read Also: What Cells Live The Longest?
How many cells are there in the human body?
There are a lot of cells in the adult human body. At different stages of the development of science this figure differed. Naturally, it is impossible to name this figure with absolute precision.
One thing is known for sure: there are about 100 trillion cells in our body. And this is very many.
What does the body consist of
The composition of the body is studied quite accurately:
- 60% water.
- 19% proteins
- 15% fats and fat-like substances
- 5% minerals
- 1% carbohydrates
The elements that make up the human body
The human body is made up of different shaped and sized cells. The shape and size of a cell depends on what functions it performs in the body.
For example, myocytes, muscle cells, ensure our movement, so they “know” how to change their length. When they are relaxed, they are thin and long, but when we tense our muscles, they become shorter and thicker.
Also interesting: Interesting facts about human organs
Skin cells resemble tightly packed bricks, and red blood cells, red blood cells, are shaped like flat discs. In this context, you may be interested to know what hemoglobin is.
Cells of the same structure and function form tissues. There are a total of four types of tissue in our body.
Epithelial tissue (covering) forms the skin and mucous membranes of internal organs.
Its main function is to protect the body and individual organs from external influences and actively participate in the metabolic process.
Cells of epithelial tissue in the intestine, for example, absorb nutrients.
Connective tissue makes up blood, lymph, bones and fat. Some of these cells carry nutrients throughout the body, others (osteocytes) support the body and others form the basis of the human defense system.
The name muscle tissue speaks for itself. The word “muscle” comes from the Latin “musculis”, which in turn comes from the word “mus”, meaning mouse.
Indeed, when we contract, it is as if our muscles are running under the skin. Long cells (up to 12 cm) contain the thinnest threads capable of contracting – these are myofibrils and myofilaments.
Nerve tissue consists of very special cells called neurons.
They have a body, where the nucleus is located, and branches (axons and dendrites). The axon, a long process, can be up to 1.5 meters long.
It carries a weak electrical discharge from cell to cell. It is called a nerve impulse.
Did you know that the smallest cell in the human body is the red blood cell? Its diameter is about 7 micrometers (1 micrometer is 0.0001 centimeter).
And the largest cell is an egg cell. Its diameter is about 0.1 mm. It can be seen even with the naked eye.
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